[Reader-list] Research Update

Aditi thorat aditi.thorat at gmail.com
Mon Apr 24 12:46:41 IST 2006

This is absolutely fantastic, Vikhar. I am very impressed and slighty
envious, I must admit, of your lucidity and attention to detail (providing
theoretical/historical links etc). I can also now understand the fatwa
against the length of Sania Mirza's skirt (something that received a fair
amount of media attention) as "considered opinion", which to me basically
means that I / women's groups (which will multiple perspecitives/positions
etc) / Sania herself has the "right" (not sure if this is the appropriate
word) to have my/their or our/her "considered opinions". Phew, that was one
complicated construction! Is there some theoretical middle ground between
the Marxist groups and liberal pluralist positions. Can you recommend some
reading, please.


On 4/24/06, Vikhar Ahmed <vikharjnu at gmail.com> wrote:
> In this section I want to look at the ideas of objectivity in journalism
> and the rationale behind the production of news.
> "The mass media serve as a system for communicating messages and symbols
> to the general populace[1]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn1>,"
> write Herman and Chomsky in their book *Manufacturing Consent: The
> Political Economy and the Mass Media. *It is a valid point that the
> authors make and it is important to see the media as a dominant element of
> popular culture. The view point of structuralism can be bought in here as
> they have a significant amount to contribute to the idea of communicating by
> language and the medium of journalism is dominated by language. The
> structuralists, led primarily by Saussure's ideas, contend that language
> consists of 'signs', which in turn can be divided into two component parts,
> 'signifier' and 'signified'. 'Signifier' for Saussure means the 'inscription
> or the acoustic sound' while 'signified' means the 'concept or mental image'
> [2]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn2>.
> The meaning of this initial idea of Saussure was restricted to linguistics
> but was taken forward by Roland Barthes who in his book *Mythologies*represents the most significant attempts to bring the method of semiology to
> bear on popular culture[3]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn3>.
> The guiding principle of this book is to always interrogate what is not
> obvious. He takes Saussure's principle of 'signifier' and 'signified' and
> adds one more level to it. The first level of 'signification', he calls
> 'primary signification' or 'denotation' and the second level he calls
> 'secondary signification' or 'connotation'. He then argues that it is at the
> second level of signification that what he calls 'myth' is produced and
> consumed. By myth Barthes means ideology understood as ideas and practices
> which defend the status quo – the 'bourgeois norm' – and actively promotes
> the interests and values of the dominant classes in society. Myth is the
> turning of the cultural and historical into the natural, the
> taken-for-granted.  As we can see Barthes is taking a slightly 'political
> framework of analysis' to borrow a phrase that Stuart Allen uses in his book
> *News Culture*. The 'political framework of analysis' draws heavily from
> the writings of Karl Marx and Fredrick Engels in *The German Ideology *as
> will become obvious from this excerpt:
> The ideas of the ruling class are in every epoch the ruling ideas, i.e.,
> the class which is the ruling *material* force of society, is at the same
> time its ruling *intellectual *force. The class which has the means of
> material production at its disposal, has control at the same time over the
> means of mental production, so that thereby, generally speaking, the ideas
> of those who lack the means of mental production are subject to it…In so
> far, therefore, as they rule as a class and determine the extent and compass
> of an epoch, it is self-evident that they…among other things…regulate the
> production and distribution of the ideas of their age: thus their ideas are
> the ruling ideas of the epoch[4]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn4>.
>             As is obvious Barthes' understanding of popular culture is
> partly based on Karl Marx' ideas of the dominant ideas being nothing but a
> means to maintain the status quo. While Marx was a journalist for ten years
> himself, he has not written directly about journalism thus his comments that
> he made about popular culture like the one above taken from *The German
> Ideology* need to be understood for journalistic institutions.
>             Before moving one I must make clear that many theorists of
> culture do not generally take the media into consideration in their
> understanding of popular culture. Most of the academicians involved in
> cultural studies tend to neglect this crucial aspect of popular culture. If
> we look at the studies of culture we will see that the early culturalists
> like Arnold and Leavis tended to see culture as restricted to art,
> literature and classical music. For them there was a difference between
> 'high culture' and 'low-brow culture'[5]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn5>.
> The anthropologists offer a more complete definition of culture as 'forms of
> life and social expression'. This is relevant in studies of the media as
> media is an important part of culture[6]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn6>.
>             Thedor Adorno and Max Horkenheimer write that mass culture is
> a way of offering temporary ephemeral gratification to people condemnded to
> lives of work. In their idea of mass culture they bring in the idea of
> television[7]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn7>.
> Though they do not specifically comment on the media here we have to see
> that how media forms an important part of 'popular culture' and if we
> interpret Adorno and Horkenheimer's thesis that they offered for 'popular
> culture' in journalism we will realise that the media serves as a temporary
> ephemeral gratification for the consumers of media who tend to absorb
> everything that is offered unquestioningly and as the 'truth'.
>             This brings us to another interesting point in journalism.
> Journalists operate on the premise that they provide the truth to their
> consumers but what is 'truth'. Is there an objective basis for truth? The
> answer to that question goes to the heart of ongoing debates over whether or
> not the news media 'reflect' social reality truthfully, or the extent to
> which journalists can produce a truthful news account. How do you separate
> facts from values? The assumption that the truth resides entirely in the
> former raises the question whether it is actually possible to separate the
> two.
>             For Noam Chomsky and Herman there is nothing like 'objective
> truth'. They have come with the propaganda model where they argue that there
> exists within that country's (their analysis is for the media as it operates
> in the United States of America) commercial news media an institutional news
> bias which guarantees mobilisation of certain 'propaganda campaigns' on
> behalf of an elite consensus (propaganda is deemed to be broadly equivalent
> with dominant ideology in this analysis. There is a collaboration of the
> state and the mass media. They use the idea of 'filters' where they
> demonstrate the extent to which journalists reiterate uncritically official
> positions of the state while simultaneously, adhering to its political
> agenda. The five filters are:
> 1.       *Size, Ownership, and Profit Orientation of the Mass Media[8]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn8>
> *: This is the first filter and concerns the commercial basis of the
> dominant news organisations. Close ties between the media elite and their
> political and corporate counterparts ensure that an 'establishment
> orientation' is ordinarily maintained at the level of news coverage. It is
> this top tier of major news companies which, together with the government
> and wire services, 'defines the news agenda and supplies much of the
> national and international news to the lower tiers of the media'.
> 2.       *The Advertising License to do Business[9]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn9>
> :* "With advertising the free market does not yield a neutral system in
> which final buyer choice decides. The advertisers' choices influence media
> prosperity and survival". They also point out that advertisers are primarily
> interested in affluent audiences due to their 'purchasing power', and thus
> are less inclined to support forms of news and public affairs content which
> attract people of more modest means. Moreover, there is a strong preference
> for content which does not call into question their own politically
> conservative principles or interferes with the 'buying mood' of the
> audience. **
> 3.       *Sourcing Mass-Media News[10]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn10>
> :* "The mass media are drawn into a symbiotic relationship with powerful
> sources of information by economic necessity and reciprocity of interest.
> The media need a steady, reliable flow of the raw material of news. They
> have daily news demands and imperative news schedules that they must meet,"
> write Chomsky and Herman. The relative authority and prestige of these
> sources also helps to enhance the credibility of the journalist's account
> leading to the news media's over reliance on government and corporate
> 'expert sources'.**
> 4.       *Flak and the Enforcers[11]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn11>
> *: Flak refers to negative responses to a media statement or program. This
> disciplines the news organisations. Chomsky and Herman are referring to a
> variety of flak including complaints from individuals or organised groups
> like state officials. The authors suggest that these makers of 'flak'
> receive respectful attention by the media, only rarely having their impact
> on news management activities explicitly acknowledged.
> 5.       *Anti-communism as a Control Mechanism[12]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn12>
> *: This final filter is the role of the 'ideology of anti-communism' as a
> 'political control mechanism'. This ideology in Herman's and Chomsky's words
> helps mobilse the populace against an enemy. The concept is so fuzzy it can
> be used against anybody advocating policies that threaten property interests
> or support accommodation with Communist states and radicalism. **
> Overall only the residue that passes through these five filters is
> pronounced fit to call news. This basically sums up the arguments of the
> propaganda model used by Herman and Chomsky. Chomsky and Herman write, "In
> sum, a propaganda approach to media coverage suggests a systematic and
> highly political dichotmisation in news coverage based on serviceability to
> important domestic power interests[13]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn13>."
> A main criticism of this approach according to Allen is that their approach
> "…risks reducing the news media to tired ideological machines confined to
> performing endlessly, and unfailingly, the overarching function of
> reproducing the prerogatives of an economic and political elite through
> processes of mystification. Journalists in this process become
> well-intentioned puppets whose strings are being pulled by forces they
> cannot fully understand. Meanwhile the news audience would appear to be
> composed of passive dupes consistently fooling fooled into believing such
> propaganda is true[14]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn14>."
> But it cannot be denied that they make important points and this framework
> of analysis has provided the basis for many other observers of the media to
> carry ahead their research.
> Edward Said's book *Covering Islam: How the Media and the Experts
> Determine how we see the World* looks at also follows a similar method of
> looking at the media. Said critically questions the role of the media and
> accuses it of creating certain shibboleths about Muslims without recognising
> the diversity in the faith of over one billion. He writes that the
> generalisations that can be made about Muslims in the media cannot be made
> about any other community and continues, ""My concern, though, is that the
> mere label 'Islam', either to explain or indiscriminately condemn 'Islam',
> actually ends up becoming a form of attack, which in turn provokes more
> hostility between self-appointed Muslim and Western spokespersons[15]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn15>."
>       Islam is variegated and the homogenous way in which it is looked at
> is wrong. "Instead of scholarship, we often find only journalists making
> extravagant statements, which are instantly picked up and further dramatised
> by the media[16]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn16>."
> He argues that there is a slippery concept of fundamentalism that they
> attribute only to Islam without ever defining any thing properly. "Much in
> current representations of Islam is designed to show the religion's
> inferiority with reference to the West, which Islam is supposed to be
> hell-bent on opposing, competing with, resenting, and being enraged at[17]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn17>".
> Apart from hostility and reductionism offered by all these
> misrepresentations they also exaggerate and inflate Muslim extremism within
> the Muslim world[18]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn18>".
> Said's point is that cooperation must be admitted. There has been a gross
> simplification of Islam.
> "The academic experts whose specialty is Islam have generally treated the
> religion and its various cultures within an invented or culturally
> determined ideological framework filled with passion, defensive prejudice,
> sometimes even revulsion; because of this framework, understanding of Islam
> has been a very difficult thing to achieve[19]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn19>,"
> Said writes and criticises Naipual for furthering this viewpoint and writes
> that he has an intense antipathy to Islam. "For Naipaul and his readers,
> 'Islam' somehow is made to cover everything that one disapproves of from the
> standpoint of civlised, and Western, rationality.
> Labels are vague and unavoidable. Labels function in atleast two different
> ways and produce two different meanings[20]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn20>.
> First, they perform a simple identifying function. The second function is
> much more complex and when Islam and the West are pitted against one another
> the assumption is that the West is greater and has surpasses the age of
> Christianity. On the other hand Islam is still mired in religion,
> primitivity and backwardness.
> "The experts whose field was modern Islam worked within an agreed-upon
> framework for research formed according to notions decidedly not set in the
> Islamic world. Modern Islamic studies in the academy belong to 'area
> programs' generally and are affiliated to the mechanism by which national
> policy is set[21]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn21>".
> He questions the source of funding for scholarly studies and links it up
> with questions of why scholars get it wrong. Apart from this the Western
> scholars do not command relevant linguistic expertise and have had to rely
> on press and other Western writers for information[22]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn22>.
> Media coverage is superficial, friendly regimes produced official
> information that they wanted and US had made no efforts to get to know the
> country well or to make contact with the opposition. These sum up US and
> European attitude towards Islamic World. Said writes that he has not been
> able to discover any period in European or American history since the Middle
> Ages in which Islam was generally discussed or thought about outside a
> framework created by passion, prejudice and political interests[23]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn23>
> .
> Said questions the aims of the press like objectivity, factuality,
> realistic coverage and calls them highly relative terms. "News, in other
> words, is less an inert given than the result of a complex process of
> usually deliberate selection and expression[24]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn24>."
> The American media differ from the French and the British media because the
> societies differ so much. Said writes that every reporter is subliminally
> aware of his setting and is subjective in that way[25]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn25>.
> The medium itself exercises great pressure. Said writes that all media is
> somewhere a corporation that has a corporate identity – they all have the
> same central consensus in mind. It is the result of the culture.
>             About this creation of consensus Said makes two points[26]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn26>.
> First, because the US is a complex society, the need to impart a more or
> less standardised common culture through the media is felt with particular
> strength. The second point shows that this consensus sets limits and
> maintains pressures. Said next comments on the quantitative aspects of news.
> The consequence of this is that Islam is viewed reductively, coercively and
> oppositionally. He gives an example by saying that Islam for the west is
> nothing but 'news' of a particularly unpleasant sort. Said criticises the
> whole institution of Islamic studies as geared towards providing what the
> media and the governments need.
> Apart from the adherents of the 'political economy' position that includes
> those media theorists influenced by the ideas of Marx the other group
> believes in a 'liberal pluralist position' where they are convinced that the
> market-bases mass media system protects the citizen's right to freedom of
> speech. It is the news media, to the extent that they facilitate the
> formation of public opinion, which are said to make democratic control over
> governing relations possible. For the adherents of this position the news
> media represents the fourth estate (as distinguished, in historical terms,
> from the church, the judiciary and the commons). Journalism, as a result, is
> charged with the crucial mission of ensuring that members of the public are
> able to draw upon a diverse 'market place of ideas' to both sustain and
> challenge their sense of the world around them. Thus, for this group of
> ideologues media is seen as empowering rather than propaganda. 'News' helps
> people in making decisions and forming opinions. The inherent notion on
> which the liberal pluralists operate is that 'News' provided through the
> media offers the 'truth'[27]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn27>
> .
> *In this section I want to look at the world of fatwas. I try to
> understand what a fatwa is and look at it historically in India and the
> manner in which it operated. Some of this research is based on a research
> paper I wrote earlier but I have incorporated some work I read in a recent
> book (Masud, Muhammad Khalid, Brinkley Messick and David. S. Powers. Islamic
> Legal Interpretation: Muftis and their Fatwas. Karachi: Oxford University
> Press, 2005) This book is very useful for anybody interested in the world of
> fatwas. *
> A fatwa is a legal opinion of a Mufti [28]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn28>(a jurisconsult). It derives from a verb meaning 'to inform'
> [29]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn29>.
> The mufti is a person educated in Islamic jurisprudence and the mechanism of
> the working of the fatwa is like this; a person who is doubtful or ignorant
> of what the shariat says in particular circumstances turns towards the mufti
> to answer his question. The person writes an istifa (question) addressed to
> a particular mufti or to an institution and the mufti pronounces a fatwa
> based on his understanding of sources. These sources include the Quran, the
> Sunna (the traditions of the prophet), hadith reports (the activities of the
> prophet as seen by his companions), the fiqh literature (this means the
> Islamic schools of jurisprudence) and ijma (meaning consensus among a
> majority of the ulema)[30]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn30>
> .
> A fatwa need not be necessarily written and can be orally pronounced. The
> fatwas that are printed do not include the real names of the individuals
> involved in a dispute but allot them fictitious names, the most common ones
> being Umar and Zayd[31]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn31>.
> In India, the fatwa is not legally binding, neither was it in colonial
> times. In colonial India the ulema functioning as the mufti registered some
> important changes, fatwas were given on the authority of a particular
> madrasa (most madrsas had a dar-ul-ifta, were issued in larger numbers and
> the technology of print enabled the madrasas to disseminate their fatwas
> more widely and to begin publishing influential compilations of them[32]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn32>.
> The collections of these fatwas by the ulema of this period are of immense
> importance for understanding the preoccupations of Indian Muslims outside
> the charmed circle of those whom the British met socially[33]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn33>
> .
> Masud, Messick and Powers distinguish between the domain of legal
> procedure (the job of the qazi) and nonbinding advisory opinions (fatawa)
> and write that the muftis have received lesser attention than that qazi
> because the job of the mufti is unfamiliar and it was not institutionalised
> as much as qazis. Also many muftis operate privately and unobtrusively
> unlike the qazis. Fatwas, throughout history have been more concerned with
> practical aspects of the state of Islamic law[34]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn34>.
> In the Indian subcontinent and Central Asia, the Hanafi school of Sunni
> Islam predominated. Although several contemporary scholars treat muftis as
> an integral part of the pre-modern judicial system, suggesting that they
> were attached to the qadi courts at all levels, this conclusion is not borne
> out by the primary sources. In this region the term fatwa often denoted an
> authoritative and accepted opinion of the Hanafi school, not necessarily an
> opinion issued in response to a question. Pre-modern Indian fatwa
> collections bear the names of rulers, indicating the status of these texts
> as authoritative opinions potentially enforceable in state courts[35]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn35>
> .
> Whereas a judgement of a qazi entails direct action, a fatwa provides
> access to sharia knowledge in the form of a considered opinion. Whereas a
> judgement carries the presumption of finality, a fatwa enters the world of
> competing opinions. Despite their non-binding and informational qualities
> fatwas often had a significant impact on law[36]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn36>
> .
> Behind the encounter of mustafti and mufti, the posing of a query and the
> giving of a fatwa lies a complex social and interpretive relation[37]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn37>.
> The mufti is not an investigator of facts so the manner in which a question
> is phrased becomes important. The issues involved ought to be ones that have
> actually arisen and should not be purely hypothetical or imaginary. The
> fatwas also have a disclaimer, such as allahu a'lam "God knows best". As
> muftis commonly are affiliated with particular schools of law, in some
> historical settings, they cite authors of authoritative works in their
> fatwas 25[38]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn38>.
> Fatwas had been in common use in colonial India. Fatwas were used quite
> liberally during the 1857 Mutiny and Jalal writes that "The fatwas issued
> during 1857 are a colourful medley of quite different points of view.[39]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn39>"
> Fatwas were also issued against cow slaughter, only to be rejected by
> another Muslim divine or propagandist[40]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn40>.
> In Kashmir, Shiekh Abdullah used the instrument of the fatwa as he sought to
> establish an alternative religious authority through his own appointed
> muftis[41]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn41>
> .
> All the various groups contesting for domination of the narrow sphere used
> the fatwa during this period as a potent instrument[42]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn42>.
> Several fatwa wars took place between the various groups with one fatwa
> being answered by another fatwa[43]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn43>.
> One of these fatwa wars related to the whether the *azaan *(call for the
> prayer) should be given from inside or outside the mosque. The special
> significance of this issue is that it was one of the few times when a
> non-Muslim was bought in as the arbitrator. The issue went up to the Hindu
> magistrate who held Ahmed Riza Khan (founder of the Barelvi school of Islam
> in South Asia to which most of the subcontinents Muslims claim allegiance
> to) guilty of libel against the recently deceased Maulana Abdul Muqtadir
> [44]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn44>.
> Ahmad Riza Khan, in the very few fatwas that he deals with the British, is
> rather emphatic in severing all ties with them[45]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn45>.
> So it is rather unfortunate that of all the alims, it was he who was forced
> to appear before the magistrate. This is also significant because it points
> to the power of the state. The ulema might choose to ignore the British and
> continue their religious debates with their fellow Muslims but the state
> would not let them go if its direct interference was solicitied.
> The Deobandis also urged their followers to completely avoid the courts of
> British India[46]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn46>.
> They set up a separate court to circumvent Anglo-Muhammedan Law[47]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn47>.
> The ulema of this period, writes Hardy, shared the political attitudes
> towards British rule of the mass of educated Muslims outside the circle –
> antipathy, sometimes hatred, but not active underground resistance[48]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn48>
> .
> Then these fatwas were also circulated among the general populace by
> either reproducing them in the newspapers run by these organisations or by
> printing tracts and distributing them all over South Asia and beyond.
> Bookshops were also publishing houses and began to be identified with
> particular groups of ulema[49]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn49>.
> The Barelwis had two printing presses in Bareilly that exclusively published
> Riza Khan's work. His books had generally something on the cover that poked
> fun at other sects and the newspaper that furthered the cause of the
> Barelwis was the Dabdaba-e Sikandari and had a section that reproduced the
> fatwas of Riza Khan[50]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn50>
> .
> Most madrasahs had a dar-al-ifta (an office that was responsible for
> answering fatwas) and Sanyal writes, "Even the addition of a Dar al-ifta to
> a madrasas of the time was competitive, for it was through the fatwa
> produced by the ulema of different movements that they made known their
> stand on controversial issues and rebutted those of their rivals. Ahmad Riza
> expressed his views for the most part in a daily stream of fatwa going out
> to people through British India and beyond"[51]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn51>.
> The main groups involved in these contestations and these contestations
> continue even in the present day were the Ahl-e-Hadis (the adherents of this
> group recognise only the Quran and the hadith and legitimate sources of
> Islamic law), the Deobandis (The Deobandis are Hanafis, meaning the
> followers of the Islamic jurisprudential system as established by the 8thcentury cleric Imam Abu Hanifa), the Barelwis (The Barelwis legitmise the
> uniquely sub-continental version of Islam which includes sacerdotalism) and
> the Nadwaites (followers of the Nadwat Ul Uloom in Lucknow). Most of the
> Sunni Muslims barely tolerated the Shiahs and considered them apostates from
> the true faith. The issues dealt with by the Barelwis, the Ahl-e-Hadis and
> the Deobandis seem to have been similar, as can be understood from the
> analysis of their fatwas, and the concerns were also the same[52]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn52>
> .
> Fatwa writing for Riza Khan was a hierarchical institution and it was
> divided among his disciples based on their areas of specialisation but
> complex fatwas were answered by himself. Sanyal writes, "Matters relating to
> ritual and the so-called 'pillars' – purification *(taharat)*, prayer (*
> salat*), alms-giving (*zakat*), fasting (*sawm*) and the pilgrimage (*hajj
> *) – appear first and in that order, in the first 4 volumes. The remaining
> volumes deal with marriage (*nikah*), regulations concerning infidels,
> apostates, and rebels (*sair*), economic issues such as partnership (*
> shirkat*) and sale (*bai'*) and bequests (*rahn*) among other things."
> "Then there are fatwas on janaza, fatwas relating to the Khilafat movement
> of the 1920's, on learning the English language. These fatwas on political
> issues are enmeshed in the section on funerals and apostates.[53]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn53>"
> I agree with Metcalf when she writes that the concern of these fatawa has
> mainly been with "…correct individual ritual practice and behaviour in
> everyday life, not, in these years of high colonial rule, issues of larger
> political or societal concerns."[54]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn54>Metcalf has translated and paraphrased a few Deobandi fatwas of which I will
> reproduce one here for the reader to understand the general way in which a
> Deobandi fatwa was composed
> *Query*: What of a person who goes to Noble Mecca on hajj and does not go
> to Medina the Radiant, thinking, 'To go to Noble Medina is not a required
> duty (*farz-i-wajib*) but rather a worthy act (*kar-i-khayr)*. Moreover,
> why should I needlessly take such a dangerous route where there are
> marauding tribes from place to place and risk to property and life. A great
> deal of money would be spent as well- so what is the point?' Is such a
> person sinful or not?
> *Answer*: Not to go to Medina because of such apprehension is a mark of
> lack of love for the Pride of the World, on whom be peace. No one abandons
> the worldly task out of such apprehension, so why abandon this pilgrimage?
> The road is not plundered every day; (safety) is a matter of chance- so that
> is no argument. Certainly, to go is not obligatory. Some people, at any
> rate, think this is pilgrimage is a greater source of reward and blessing
> than *lifting the hands in prayer and saying amin out loud*. Do not give
> up going out of fear of controversy or concern for your reputation. Should
> you abandon this pilgrimage from such apprehension and supposition, or put
> it off, consider, then, which portion is  that of full faith. It is a joy to
> spend money on good acts. To go from Mecca to Medina, travelling first
> class, costs only fifty rupees. Whoever takes account of fifty rupees and
> does not take account of the blessed speulchre of the lord is a person of
> undoubtedly defective faith and love. Even if not a sinner, this person
> lacks faith in is basic nature. The end. Almightly Allah knows better[55]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn55>.
> Rashid Ahmad, may he be forgiven[56]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn56>
> .
> * *
>             This is the general reply to a fatwa. Instead of answering the
> question in a simple manner the answer is long and drawn out and as the
> portion in italics shows is specifically targeted at other groups. In this
> particular fatwa of Rashi Ahmed Gangohi the target is the Ahl-e-Hadis. The
> Ahl-e-Hadis do not encourage pilgrims on the Hajj to visit the grave of
> Mohammed and thus we see how Gangohi is directly making them the targets of
> his fury when he writes that making this pilgrimage is a greater source of
> reward than lifting the hands in prayer and saying amin out loud. This
> practice called rafayidin is peculiar to the Ahl-e-Hadis' salat and there
> are many fatwas legitimising this practice in Amritsari's collection. This
> is one example to show how the fatwa was used as a chance to very visibly
> demonstrate the contempt that one group held for the other.
>             Metcalf has examined the Deobandi fatwas and writes that they
> were largely concerned with dealings with other Muslim groups rather than
> having to anything to do with the Hindu and the British. The Deoband fatwas
> were quite prolific and the number of fatwas produced by the dar-al-ifta at
> Deoband were 147, 851 between 1911 and 1951[57]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn57>.
> The influence of the ulema was primarily limited to matters of belief,
> ritual and relations to other religious groups. She writes, "Many of the
> fatawa dealt with the basic required rituals of the faith. A full one-fifth
> of the whole were devoted to the correct performance of the canonical
> prayer, the most important and frequent of the Islamic religious duties.
> These fatawa dealt with such problems such as the correct time of prayer,
> the manner of ablution and the procedure of both requisite *namaz* and
> special prayers. They, too, reflected reformist concerns. For example, they
> forbade the funeral prayer to be read in either mosque or graveyard and
> prohibited ceremonies on fixed days after a death. Many of the fatawa on *
> namaz* treated differences in details of performance with the Ahl-i Hadis.
> A handful of fatawa deal covered other ritual obligations such as fasting
> and hajj. About an equal number were concerned with the proper care and
> techniques of reading the Quran. The bulk of the remaining fatawa dealt with
> relations to other groups, including the Ahl-i Hadis, the so called bid'ati
> Muslims, the Shiah, the Hindus, and the British rulers. The existence of
> such fatawa suggest the active religious debate characterisation of this
> period.[58]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn58>"
> This long quote from Metcalf shows a remarkable similarity on the issues
> dealt with by Amritsari and thus, the Ahl-e-hadis with even the ratio of
> fatwas on certain issues being the same. The only lack in Amritsari's fatwas
> is on those related to the British.
> Even the fatwas of Ahmed Riza Khan ignores British presence[59]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn59>.
> But unlike the fatwas of Sanaullah Amritsari (a prominent early twentieth
> century cleric of the Ahl-e-hadis) and Ahmed Riza Khan Barelwi the Deobandi
> fatwas did not have extensive citations from the Quran and the hadis[60]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn60>.
> The fatwas are in simple Urdu and are actual exchanges of letters. At the
> risk of digressing, a point must be made here about how the ulema tended to
> popularise Urdu and Metcalf writes that Deoband was instrumental in
> establishing Urdu as a language of communication among the Muslims of India
> [61]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn61>.
> Robinson also mentions this point as he traces the history of the Firangi
> Mahal family. He writes that the Perso-Islamic culture declined in India
> from the 1820's and 1830's and the reformist ulema were partly responsible
> for this decline because they started using local languages to transmit
> their messages[62]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn62>.
> The fatwas of Abdul Hay, a prominent Firangi Mahali were also important
> during this period but these were rather more academic compendium of legal
> rulings than the collections of the Deobandi ulema[63]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn63>
> .
> Many a time there was a bombardment of fatwas on either side. One instance
> was when Ahmed Riza Khan went on his second Hajj in 1905 and secured fatwas
> against the Deobandis who responded with their own fatwas[64]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn64>.
> Riza Khan institutionalised the traditional version of Islam that had come
> down through the centuries and was widely prevalent all over the
> subcontinent. He wanted to maintain Islam as it existed and he did not see
> any mistake in the way Islam was followed. Riza Khan gave a legitimacy to
> the rituals and ceremonies that were being practised among South Asian
> Muslims but which did not have scriptural sanction. Riza Khan's argument was
> that any practice that hundred's  of ulema have considered to be good over
> hundred's of years cannot be bad[65]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn65>.
> These practices increasingly came under attack of reformist groups like the
> Ahl-e-Hadis and the Deobandis.
> To the extent that the sharia remains relevant or authoritative, it is
> usually in the domain of family law. Many nation states have muftis
> nowadays. Formal instructional programmes and apprenticeships for the
> training of muftis have been established in institutions such as Azhar
> University in Egypt and Dar-al-Ulum in Karachi, which has a specialised two
> year program of courses in ifta[66]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftn66>.
> Dar-al-ifta's have become common in many countries. Other notable fatwa
> committees include that established by the World Muslim League in Mecca etc.
> *In my further research I will be looking at the way the media reports
> about fatwas.*
> ------------------------------
> [1]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref1>Herman…p. 1
> [2]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref2>Storey…p. 93
> [3]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref3>Ibid. p. 94
> [4]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref4>Allen…p. 50
> [5]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref5>Storey…p. 3
> [6]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref6>Rivkin…p.
> [7]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref7>Ibid.,
> [8]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref8>Herman…p. 3
> [9]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref9>Ibid., p. 14
> [10]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref10>Ibid., p. 18
> [11]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref11>Ibid., p. 26
> [12]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref12>Ibid., p. 29
> [13]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref13>Ibid., p. 35
> [14]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref14>Allen…p. 60
> [15]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref15>Said…p. xv-xvi
> [16]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref16>Ibid., p. xviii
> [17]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref17>Ibid., p. xxv
> [18]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref18>Ibid., p. xxvi
> [19]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref19>Ibid., ps. 6 & 7
> [20]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref20>Ibid., ps. 9 & 10
> [21]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref21>Ibid., p. 19
> [22]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref22>Ibid., ps. 22 & 23
> [23]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref23>Ibid., p. 50
> [24]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref24>Ibid.
> [25]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref25>Ibid., p. 51
> [26]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref26>Ibid., pgs. 54 &55
> [27]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref27>Allen…p. 49
> [28]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref28>The education of a Mufti involves several years of education. The education
> to become an alim requires 14 years at the Nadwat-ul-Uloom. I am not sure
> about the number of years it requires at other institutions. Kozlowski
> writes that only 7 students become Maulawi Kamil every year which gives them
> the right to issue a fatwa. A person who wants to be a Maulawi Kamil has to
> first be a Maulawi and then graduate to be a Maulawi alim and only then
> finally he can be a Maulawi kamil that is equivalent to an M.A. p. 909.
> [29]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref29>Kozlowski…p. 896.
> [30]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref30>Masud…p. 16
> [31]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref31>We see this phenomenon occurring in several of Sanaullah Amritsari's fatwas
> also.
> [32]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref32>Zaman…p. 25
> [33]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref33>Hardy…p. 171
> [34]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref34>Masud…p. 4
> [35]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref35>Masud…ps. 14 & 15
> [36]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref36>Ibid., p. 19
> [37]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref37>Ibid., p. 20
> [38]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref38>Ibid., ps. 22-25
> [39]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref39>Jalal…p. 33
> [40]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref40>Jalal…p. 85
> [41]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref41>Rai…p. 269
> [42]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref42>See Sanyal…pp. 203-207 for a brief idea about the manner in which Riza Khan
> used the fatwa to target other groups.
> [43]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref43>Sanyal…p. 196
> [44]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref44>Sanyal…p. 197 and p. 200.
> [45]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref45>Sanyal…p. 283.
> Ahmad Riza Khan's response as far as relations with the British went
> showed a reluctance to deal with them at all: -
> -           Muslims must refrain from taking disputes to the court
> -           Muslims should keep commercial transactions within the
> community
> -           Wealthy Muslims should open interest-free banks for fellow
> Muslims
> -           Muslims should go back to follwing the *din* (religion)
> correctly
> [46]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref46>Kozlowski…p. 922
> [47]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref47>Metcalf…pp. 146-147.
> [48]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref48>Hardy…p. 173
> [49]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref49>Metcalf…pp. 214-215.
> [50]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref50>Sanyal…p. 84-87
> [51]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref51>Sanyal…p. 81
> [52]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref52>The issues dealt by the ulema even today remain the same as the article by
> Gregory Kozlowki shows. Kozlowski studies the fatwas of the Mufti of the
> Jami'ah Nizamiyyah in 1989 and writes that, "In published collection of
> fatawa, an outside portion of the queries and replies deal with ritual
> matters such as the etiquette of prayer or the pilgrimage and ritual
> pollution. Many of the problems addressed seem to be purely hypothetical,
> designed as much to display a scholars forensic skill and learning as to
> resolve some genuine dilemma. The most common queries to this mufti (of the
> Jami'ah Nizamiyya) were those that related to marital relations and
> inheritance.
> [53]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref53>Sanyal…p. 183-184.
> [54]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref54>Metcalf…Intro…p. 17
> [55]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref55>Kozlowski writes that the fatwas of Jamiyah Nizamiyah also carry the caveat,
> 'God alone knows the truth!' p. 917. Thus, we see how the ulema try to solve
> the issue to the best of their knowledge but try to signify their modesty by
> including this statement at the end of every fatwa.
> [56]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref56>Metcalf…Two Fatwas…p. 56
> [57]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref57>Hardy…p. 171
> [58]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref58>Metcalf…Islamic Revival…p. 149
> [59]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref59>Sanyal…p. 50
> [60]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref60>Metcalf…Two Fatwas…p. 62
> [61]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref61>Metcalf…Islamic Revival…pp. 102-103. Also see pp. 206-210. Metcalf writes
> that from modest beginnings early in the century, Urdu had become the
> language of almost all religious works with a shift in the social and
> political implications of using Urdu slowly shifting. Urdu was identified as
> a Muslim language and threatened. The ulema were reacting to a threat to
> their culture and political position by fostering the use of Urdu. The ulema
> played a fundamental role in establishing Urdu as a pre-eminent symbol of
> Muslim identity in India.
> [62]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref62>Robinson…Ulama…p. 33
> [63]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref63>Hardy…p. 173
> [64]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref64>Sanyal…p. 65
> [65]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref65>Sanyal…p. 162-163.
> [66]<http://mail.google.com/mail/?&ik=89496ee159&view=cv&search=inbox&th=10aca8e505524ae8&lvp=7&cvp=1&qt=&zx=bg4ku6-maw3ke#10aca8e505524ae8__ftnref66>Masud…p. 27
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Aditi Thorat
Officer on Special Duty to Chief Minister
Government of Rajasthan
0141-5116629 (Tele/Fax)
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