[Reader-list] Kalat's occupation by Paki army in 1948

yasir ~يا سر yasir.media at gmail.com
Tue Mar 9 21:18:32 IST 2010

the problem exacerbated as a federal-prvincial, ie provincial autonomy issue
which has hardened over the last 60 years as authoritarian and military
rule, but the federal framework is capable of resolving this, through
devolution, interprovincial/federal coordination etc. while there are
separatists there are many refomists and deniers of the problem also.

On Tue, Mar 9, 2010 at 4:51 PM, Pawan Durani <pawan.durani at gmail.com> wrote:

> That Kalat is an independent and sovereign state its status is different
> from other princely states of British India, its relations with the British
> government being based on various mutual agreements and treaties.
> That Kalat is not an Indian state, its relations with India being of only a
> formal nature by virtue of Kalat's agreements with the British and that
> with
> the ceasing of the Agreement of 1876 with the Kalat government, Kalat would
> regain its complete independence, as it existed prior to 1876. All such
> regions including Quetta Municipality as were given under the control of
> the
> British in consequence of any treaty will be returned to the sovereignty of
> the Kalat state, and resume their original status as parts of the Kalat
> state.
> On March 22, 1947, Lord Mountbatten, the last of the Viceroys of India,
> arrived in Delhi to wind up British supremacy in this part of the British
> dominions. The final partition plan of June 3, 1947 stated in respect of
> transfer of power in India. Mr, Jinnah wrote to the Khan of Kalat that
> since
> the position of the Kalat State was different from the other Indian States,
> representation on behalf of the state should be made directly to the
> Viceroy
> in Delhi to discuss the future position of Kalat and the return of Baloch
> regions hitherto under the control of the British Government. Accordingly,
> the Chief Secretary of Kalat State was sent to Delhi with a draft of the
> new
> position of Kalat as prepared by legal experts. This resulted in a round
> table conference, held on August 4, 1947, in which Lord Mountbatten, Mr,
> Jinnah, Mr Liaqat Ali Khan, Chief Minister of Kalat, Sir Sultan Ahmed, the
> legal Advisor of Kalat State and the Khan of Kalat took part in the
> deliberations The following points were agreed upon:
> "Kalat State will be independent on August 5, 1947, enjoying the same
> status
> as it originally held in 1838, having friendly relations with its
> neighbours. In case the relations of Kalat with any future government got
> strained, Kalat will exercise its right of self-determination, and the
> British Government should take precautionary measures to help Kalat in the
> matter as per the Treaties of 1839 and 1841."
> As a corollary to the round table conference at Delhi, another agreement
> was
> signed between Kalat and Pakistan on August 4, 1947. The points agreed upon
> were broadcast on August 11, 1947, as under:
> "The Government of Pakistan agrees that Kalat is an independent state,
> being
> quite different in status from other states of India; and commits to its
> relations with the British Government as manifested in several
> agreements..... In the meantime, a Standstill Agreement will be made
> between
> Pakistan and Kalat by which Pakistan shall stand committed to all the
> responsibilities and agreements signed by Kalat and the British Government
> from 1839 to 1947 and by this,.... In order to discuss finally the
> relations
> between Kalat and Pakistan on matters of defense, foreign relations and
> deliberations will be held in the near future in Karachi." A few weeks
> after
> the agreement, the Agent to the Governor-General informed the rulers of
> Kharan and Lasbela that the control of their regions had been transferred
> to
> the Kalat State. Hence they once again came under the direct influence of
> Kalat. The Marri and Bugti tribal region was also returned into the Kalat
> fold soon after. Thus the whole of Balochistan came under the suzerainty of
> the Khan of Kalat in the same confederacy of Baloch tribes that Nasir Khan
> I, in 1666-67, was able to create. The Kalat government made a formal
> declaration of its independence on August 15, 1947, soon after the end of
> British supremacy, and a day after Pakistan's coming into being on the map
> of the subcontinent. Immediately, a delegation comprising the Kalat prime
> minister and foreign minister was sent to Karachi, the then capital of
> Pakistan, for discussions and an honorable settlement vis-a-vis relations
> with Pakistan in the light of the mutually endorsed Standstill Agreement of
> August 11, 1947.
> To shock and grief of Khan of Kalat Mr, Jinnah coarsely persuaded the Khan
> to expedite the merger. The Khan replied, "I have great respect for your
> advice......but Balochistan, being a land of numerous tribes, the people
> there must be duly consulted in the matter prior to any decision I take;
> for, according to the prevalent tribal convention, no decision can be
> binding upon them unless they are taken into confidence beforehand by their
> Khan."
> With this provisional agreement, the Khan returned to Kalat and promptly
> summoned the Kalat State Houses of Parliament, the Dar-ul-Awam and
> Dar-ul-Umra and proposed to the House to accord him a mandate on the matter
> of Kalat's merger with Pakistan. Both the Houses, however, contended
> unanimously that the proposal of Kalat's merger militated against the
> spirit
> of the earlier agreement arrived at between Kalat Government and the
> spokesmen of Pakistan on August 4, 1947, as also against the Independence
> Act of 1947.
> This decision of Kalat's Parliament was forwarded to the Ministry of
> Foreign
> Affairs, Government of Pakistan, for necessary processing. Shortly
> afterwords, the Mr, Jinnah visited Sibi and during his stay there insisted
> upon the Khan to sign the merger documents in his personal capacity.
> Finding
> reluctance in Khan Govt: Pakistan Cabinet under the leadership and
> instruction of Mr, Jinnah working on a scheme to breakup the 500-year old
> state. The nature of their scheme, as it turned out subsequently, was
> tantamount to a political castration of the Baloch people.
> Illegally and in violation of of 4th August 1947 round table conference
> declaration and agreement made by Mr, Jinnah on the very day with Khan,
> Stand Still Agreement and also Govt; of Pakistan's earlier decion, it had
> decided to punish and encircle Kalat and Baloch people cut off Kharan and
> Lasbela by giving them an equal status as Kalat and obtaining their
> "mergers" with Pakistan directly. Makran, which had been a part of the
> Kalat
> State for the last 300 years, was made independent of Kalat on March 17,
> 1948; and one of the three Sardars made its ruler.
> Thus Makran, too, was made a part of Pakistan. These hasty, illogical,
> irrational and politically illegal and oppressive steps naturally
> disillusioned the Baloch people. They rightly felt that all their erstwhile
> services and sacrifices in the cause of Pakistan were now forgotten. So
> deep
> was their despair and frustration that several of them wanted to revolt.
> Meanwhile, the wave of hatred and animosity generated by the irrational
> policies of the Government of Pakistan against Kalat was fast gaining
> dangerous dimensions all over Balochistan. Feelings in the tribal areas
> particularly were running high against Pakistan and the Baloch people were
> calling the position of the Khan of Kalat himself into question.
> Things were moving fast towards a show down. The Government of Pakistan
> instructed the Brigadier in Command at Quetta to go on full alert for
> action
> against Kalat state and the Agent to the Governor General began to prepare
> for police action. This was the situation as it stood in the first quarter
> of 1948 triggered by the illogical actions of the Pakistan.
> Under duress Khan of Kalat signed the merger documents in his personal
> capacity on March 27, 1948, in an effort to diffuse the situation in
> Balochistan. In his autobiography, he admits that he did not have the
> mandate to sign the merger without the consent of the Houses of Parliament
> of Kalat State. A fortnight after the merger, on April 15, 1948, the Agent
> to the Governor General in Balochistan issued an order in the name of Mr,
> Jinnah, and the legal entity of the Khan of Kalat was abolished and within
> 20 hours of the order many of the members of the Balochistan Cabinet were
> arrested or exiled from Balochistan. Prince Abdul Karim's revolt and first
> Baloch armed struggle sarted in this back ground. By Hussain Bux Thebo
> 30.3.07
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